9.7-Types of Offences

What is a Criminal Offence?

A criminal offence is any violation of a Federal Statute. A crime occurs when someone violates the law.

How are Offences Classified under the Criminal Code of Canada?

There are three types of offences:

  • indictable offences
  • summary conviction offences
  • dual or hybrid offences

What is an Indictable Offence?

Indictable offences are quite serious. Theft or fraud exceeding $5000, breaking and entering, arson, assault, murder, and abduction are a few instances. Indictable offences may result in harsh penalties.

What is a Summary Conviction Offence?

Summary conviction offences are less severe than felony offences. This sort of offence includes causing a disturbance, trespassing at night, and indecent exposure. These minor offences have a maximum penalty of $5,000 in fines or six months in prison, or both.

What are Hybrid Offences?

These are commonly referred to as dual offences. They are divided into two categories: less serious indictable offences and more serious summary conviction offences. They may also be affected by other criteria, such as the individual charged’s criminal past. Common hybrid offences include assault, public mischief, and failing to halt at the site of an accident.

A dual or hybrid offence is just a new charge. When the matter is heard in court, the crown prosecutor must determine whether to charge the defendant with a summary conviction or an indictable offence.

What can I do if I suspect someone on my site is participating in or has knowledge of a crime? Your actions are determined by whether or not you discover someone committing a crime. You may inquire or arrest.


Talking to people is part of your work. This allows you to get to know the individuals on your site and what happens there on a regular basis. You have the right to ask inquiries if you see something weird or questionable. However, the individual is not required to respond. If you ask inquiries, you must also inform the subject that they are free to leave, and the questioning must be general rather than specific to a crime.

For example, if you work in a shop where DVDs have been stolen and notice some suspect youngsters in the movie aisle, you may ask them questions like:

  • “What are you doing?”
  • “Where are your parents?”
  • “What are you up to?”